With its high Himalayan mountains and deep valleys, lush jungle and exotic wildlife, Nepal imbibes within itself diverse origin, culture and life styles. Apart from these, the beauty and serenity of the place and the simplicity of its people have always attracted visitors to delve into this mystic country. Be it trekking, rafting or enjoying panoramic views, Nepal forms a perfect destination for tourists.

Geography:

Wedged in between China to the north and India on the other three sides, Nepal has a long roughly rectangular shape with an extension of around 885 km east–west and 145–241 km north–south. Altitude ranges from near sea level to 8848 m above it. The contrasting topography of Nepal can be divided into three different geographic regions based on the altitude.

Himalaya Region: with an inclusion of 8 of the 14 highest summits in the world, this region ranges from 4877 m and 8848 m here, the culture and religion are in compliance to that of Tibet.

 

Hilly Region: Lying as a broad belt between the Terai and the Himalayas, the Hilly region is the most densely populated part of Nepal. It covers 64% of the total area of Nepal including Kathmandu and Pokhara.

Terai Region: This narrow strip of subtropical Gangetic plains extends through the entire southern part of the country. It has an altitude of less than 100 m above sea level, mostly covered with forest and fertile farming fields.


Flora and Fauna:

Nepal is a land of geographical extremes, ranging from near sea-level elevations in the southern Terai to the world’s highest mountain. The country contains variety of ecosystem; treeless sub-alpine pastures and dense forests of the high valley, oak and rhododendron woods of the middle hills, and tall sal forest of the south. Along the southern border of Nepal are preserved much of the low land jungles and grassland that once covered this part of the sub continent. Here one can see the birds and mammals found nowhere else. Although animals habitat has been somewhat depleted as a result of agriculture, deforestation and other causes, through Nepal’s extensive and effective park and reserve system, the country still has more varied flora and fauna than any other area in Asia.

1. Tropical Deciduous Monsoon Forest:

This includes the Terai plain and the broad flat valleys or Duns found between hill ranges. The dominant tree species of this area are Sal (Shorea robusta), some time associated with Simal (Bombax malabricum), Asna (Terminalia termentosa), Dalbergia spp. And other species, Pinus roxburghi occurring in the higher ridges of the Churia hills, which in places reach an altitude of 1,800 meters. Tall coarse two- meter high elephant grass originally covers much of the Dun valley but now has been largely replaced by agriculture settlement. The tropical zone is Nepal’s richest area for wild life, with gaurs wild buffalo, four species of deer, tiger leopard and other animals, Rhinoceros, swamp deer and hog deer are found in the grasslands and two species of crocodile and the Gangetic dolphin inhabit the river.

2. Subtropical Mixed Evergreen Forest:

This includes the Mahabharat Lekh, which rises to height of about 2,400 meters and comprises the outer wall of the Himalayan range. Great rivers such as the Karnali, Narayani, and Sapta Koshi flow through this area into the plains of the terai. This zone also includes the so-called “middle hills” which extends in northward somewhat confused maze of ridges and valleys to the foot of the great Himalaya. Among the tree species characteristics of this region are Castonopsis indicia in association with Schima wallichi, and other species such as Alnus nepalensis, Acer oblungum and various species of oaks and rhododendron, which covers the higher slopes where deforestation has not yet been taken place. This place is generally poor in wildlife. The only mammals, which are at all widely distributed, are wild boar, barking deer, serow, ghoral and bear. Different varieties are also found in this zone.

3. Temperate Evergreen Forest, Northward:

On the lower slopes and spurs of the Great Himalaya, oaks and pines are the dominant species up to an altitude of about 2,400 meters. Above these are found dense conifer forest of Picea, Tsuga, Larix and Betula spp. Abies and Betula are usually confirmed to higher elevations, with Betula typically marking the upper limit of the tree line. At about 3,600 to 3,900 meters rhododendron, bamboos and maple commonly mingle with the coniferous predominating in the west and ericaceous in the east. The wildlife of this region includes the Himalayan Bear, serow, ghoral, barking deer and wild boar, with the Himalayan tahr sometimes being seen on steep rocky faces above 2,400 meters. The red pandas are amongst the more interesting of the smaller mammals found in this zone; it appears to be fairly well distributed in the suitable area of the forest above 1,800 meters. The rich and varied avifauna of this region includes several spectacular and beautiful pheasants, including he Danphe pheasant, Nepal’s national bird.

4. Sub-Alpine and Alpine Zone:

Above the tree line rhododendron, juniper scrub and other procumbent woody vegetation may be extend to about 4,200 meters where they are then succeeded by tundra like association of short grasses, sedge mosses and alpine plants wherever there is sufficient soil. This continues up to the lower limit of perpetual snow and ice at about 5,100 meters. The mammalian fauna are sparse and unlikely to include any species other than the Himalayan marmot, mouse hare, tahr, musk deer, snow leopard and occasionally blue sheep. In former times the wild yak and great Tibetan sheep could also be sighted in this region and it is possible that a few may still be surviving in the area such as Dolpa and Humla. The bird life at this altitude includes several interesting species such as the lammergeyer, snow cock, snow partridge, chough and bunting with redstarts and dipper often seen along the streams and rivulet.
 


The People:

Nepal has a population of about nineteen million, made up of an assortment of races and tribes living in different regions, wearing different costumes and speaking different languages and dialects. The live under diverse environmental condition, from the low plains at the borders of India, northward through the middle hills and valleys up to the flanks of great Himalayan range where there are settlements at altitudes of up to 4,800 meters.

The Himalayan settlements of Tibetan speaking people are found perched precariously on mountain ledges and slopes. Life here is a delicate balance of hard work and social merry making, tempered by a culture steeped in ancient religious traditions. The best known of the high mountain people are the Sherpas who inhabit the eastern mountains of Nepal.

The midlands are inhabited by various Tibeto-Burman and Indo- Aryan peoples, such as Brahmans, Chhetris and Newars.
The Arai, Limbu, Tamang, Sunwar, Jirel, Gurung Thakali and Chepang are another Tibeto-Burman speaking Mongoloid people living in middle hills. They each have their own social and distinct cultural pattern. The Dun valley and the Terai are in habitaed by Brahmans, Rajputs, Tharu, Dhanuwar, Majhi, Darai, Rajbanshi, Satar Dhimal and Dhanger.

Though Nepal is veritable mosaic of dozens of ethnic groups, they are bound together by ideas of peace, democracy and nationalism.

Nepali is a national language of Nepal and is written in Devnagari Script. Other languages spoken in Nepal include Maithali, Bhojpuri, Tamang, Avadhi, Gurung, Tharu and Newari. However, most eduacated nepali can also speak and write English.
 


Religion:

In Nepal, religious permeates every facet of life with festivals, daily rituals, family celebration and religious observances. At every step one can see the temples and shrines, processions and traditional music. Although Nepal is famous for the world’s only Hindu kingdom, it is an intricate and beautiful tapestry woven of Hinduism, Buddhism and over faiths living together in tolerance and harmony.

With the majority of Hindus and Buddhists, Nepal houses Muslims, Christians and Jains to a smaller percent. Nepal, the world’s only Hindu nation demonstrates artistic architecture in temples and pagodas, enhanced by woodcarvings, metal works and various artifacts.

Hinduism:

Hinduism is the complex religion with a variety of teachers, doctrine and it is said million of gods and goddess. Though Hinduism is frequently described in philosophical terms as a trinity of three gods – Brahma, the creator Vishnu, the preserver and Shiva the destroyer, in every religion numerous god and goddess are worshipped depending upon the special day of observance, the affinity of the person or the family for a particular deity and the purpose of the worship. Certain deities are particularly important in Nepal.

Shiva, the destroyer, is historically the god must worship in the country. He may be worshiped as the holy ascetic, depicted with his consort Parbati and holding a trident and a small drum or more often in the form of the linga, an elongated stone representing his generative powers. The most important linga is situated in the holy shrine of Pashupatinath to west of Kathmandu. In front of Shiva temple one usually sees a statue of Nandi, the divine bull that serves as Shiva’s vehicle. Another popular form of Shiva in Nepal is the terrifying Bhairab. Different aspects of Bhairab play major roles in many of the valley’s festivals.

Vishnu, whose primary duty is to assure the preservation of the world and all living forms, is believed to have visited the earth ten times, each time as a different incarnation or avatar. He is often depicted as a boar, a tortoise, a man-lion and a fish-his four animal incarnations. Though out south Asia he is often worshipped in two well-known human forms: Ram, the hero of epic Ramayan and the pastoral god Krishna. In Nepal he is often worshipped in his omnipotent form of Narayan and in some of his most lovely images is seen astride the man-bird Garuda, his vehicle.

The archetypal mother or female, goddess is of particular importance in Nepal. She is worshipped in many aspects: as Durga, protector and slayer of the buffalo demon, as Taleju, patron deity of the valley rulers, and as Kumari, and the living virgin goddess. Other female goddess includes Laxmi goddess of wealth and Saraswati, the goddess of learning and the art.

Another widely venerated god is elephant headed Ganesh, the remover of obstacles and the source of good fortune. Other deities such as Red Machhendranath, are special to Nepal alone and are celebrated with unique local festivals.

Buddhism:

There are varieties of Buddhist practices in Nepal, the Buddhism of endemic Newar people, perhaps related to the ancient Buddhism that passed out of India one thousand years ago; the Buddhism of the Sherpa, Tamang and Tibetan peoples and relatively modern incursion of Theravadin or Southern Buddhism.

The central belief and practices date back to the time of its founder, prince Sidhartha Gautam who was born in Lumbini in the southern Terai in about 543 BC until the age of 29, the young prince led a sheltered life in the royal palace of his father, completely unaware of the problems and the sufferings of the world outside his palace walls. One day he convinced his charioteer to take him out side the pace, where he was shocked at the sight of an old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic. The realization of a true misery of the world persuaded the prince to abandon his ludicrous life and go into the forest to seek enlightenment to end human suffering. For many years, Gautam practiced asceticism without success. One night beneath a people tree in the forest of Bodh Gaya he became enlightened. Henceforth known as Lord Buddha, the “enlightened one” he traveled around northern India and southern Nepal preaching the middle path to enlightenment. At the age of 80 he passed into the final enlightenment ‘Parinirvana’.

His teaching spread throughout the world, changing and evolving as all religion do. The southern school retained the basic teaching of Buddha according to the sutras, written down some years after his death. The northern, or Mahayana school emphasized the role of the Bodhisatva, the person who forgoes final and absolute enlightenment until he has guided all other being to enlightenment first. The school predominates in China and Japan. In India at the end of the first millennium A.D. the Vajrayana School arose. Incorporating both southern and Mahayana doctrines, it added new forms of meditation, elaborate rituals, new aspects of Buddha in the form of tantric gods and goddess a philosophy that emphasize the use of all aspects of human experience as material for enlightenment. While Buddhism decline in India with the Muslim invasions, it retained its vigor near by Nepal. Nepal served as a seed for the establishment of Vajrayana Buddhism in Tibet.

In addition to Hinduism and Buddhism in Nepal, a small minority of Nepalese adheres to Islam and Christianity. Muslims and Christians believed and practice in Nepal as they do throughout the world.
 


Art and Culture:

There is perhaps no country in the world where traditional architecture, paintings and sculptures are as well preserved. For 1500 years, Nepal has been famed as a center of temple building, metal work and woodcarving and for centuries, Nepal has sent its precious art objects to he other centers of civilization. Today, many of its crafts skills are undiminished. To better understand the deep and complex root of Nepalese culture, it is necessary to look at Nepal’s ancient past.

Tilaurakot: Over the past few decades’ archaeological work has been conducted in Terai region of the country where Nepal’s first settlements were probably located. Tilaurakot, for example, is used to be the capital of the Shakya Dynasty and is situated in Kapilvastu district in western Nepal. The present archaeological site extends over an area of more than 5 sq km. The central portion measuring 5,000 meter by 4,000 meters, is surrounded by a citadel built at three different periods. The first and second citadel walls are made of mud and date from 600 to 200 BC while the third wall appears to have constructed with kiln burnt bricks around 150 BC. The eastern gate, the eastern stupa, the Ashita Apsidal stupa and the defense wall were first discovered at the site. More recent excavation brought to light the majestic western gatemen complex including the watchman’s room 6 meter wide road of different periods (with cart-track impression), the moat of the east and west, three periods of defense walls and northern twin stupas made and enlarged between the 4th and 2nd century BC. The central portion of the site has also been excavated and various brick structures from 3rd century BC to the 2nd century AD have been unearthed. Water storage tanks big jars, bricks and terra cotta figurine (dated 400 BC to AD 200), silver punch marked coins, early cast coins with symbols, Kushan coins, and pieces of Sunga and Kushan pottery. Apart from these antiquities, practical items such as terra cotta, cartwheels, iron implement, nails, arrowheads, bone and copper rods, dice and fishing hooks have also been found.

Gotihawa: these ancient ruins are situated eleven kilometers south of Tilaurakot and six kilometers southwest of Taulihawa, the present district headquarters. To north of the Gotihawa village, there is an ancient brick stupa and an Ashokan Pillar. The lower portion with an ancient granite base stone is still intact but the crowning features and inscriptional portion are missing. The site can be safely identified as the Nirvan stupa of Kakuchhanda Buddha (one of the previous Buddha’s), whose hometown lies within 1 km of this stupa.

Sagarahawa: this site is located 2 km north of Tilarakot on the bank of the Banganga river. It was excavated in 1896 and seventeen miniature stupas were found here.

In the same general region, sites of ancient civilization have been identified at Lumbini, Banjhari, Nipaniya, Kadytawa, to mention just a few. Several important sites have been also excavated in the eastern region of the country, the most important of which are Bhediari, Varahkshetra, Janakpur and Simraongad.

Bhediari: Located nearly 6 km south of Biratnagar, the ancient ruins at this site includes many important bricks temples, there is a two-meter high rectangular platform supported from the inside by cross walls. So far no image either of stone or terra cotta has been found during the excavation; however, a number of silver punch-marked coins has been found.

Varahakshetra: this is another important temple site located at the confluence of the Koka and Koshi rivers. The site is known to belong to the period of later Guptas, who had issued a copper grant for the two Varaha images found there. There are also many miniature Gupta period temple replicas, which suggest that many such temples and idols were made, during he 6th and 7th centuries AD.

Narasingha Tappu: some years ago while cultivating at Narasingha Tappu, close to the present town of Itahari, an idol of Vishnu was discovered. The image belongs to the 6th or 7th century AD and is of a Gupta tradition. It is know kept inside a local Shiva temple. The site, according to local people, also contains pottery items, indicating that it was early as the Gupta dynasty (4th – 5th century AD).

Janakpur: At Ram – Janaki temple complex near Janakpur there is an important image of depicting Uma lying on a bed and feeding a baby. Ganesh and Kumar are also depicted in the panel while on the top of the scene is Shiva linga. The piece dates from 12th or 13th century AD and belongs to the Karnatakas of Simraongad.

Simraongad: This was the old capital city of the Karnatakas of Mithila and was built by king Nanyadeva in AD 1097 – 98. the ruins of the city extends over an area of 16 kilometers which is still surrounded by a high wall of kiln burnt bricks. There are more than 100 image and sculptures scattered throughout the area. Most are made of black schist stone and are nicely polished; a few are made of sand stones. The images at the site are of Vishnu, Narayan, Laxmi Narayan, Shankersana, Gaurodopari Vishnu, Uma Maheshwor, Durga, Shiva and Surya. In different parts of Simraongad, there are remains of temples and gateways of the old city.

Other sites bearing Karnataka images and sculptures are Kanchanpur (near Rajbiraj), Murtiya (west of Janakpur) and Valmiki Nagar (near the Gandaki barrage), as well as several other places between the Gandaki and Sapta Koshi River.
 


Paintings:

Two media that reveal a lot about Nepalese culture, both past and present, are paintings and sculptures. Fortunately, there are many fine and well-preserved pieces that have survived the passage of time and thus enabled detailed research to be made. Looking briefly at the history of Nepalese paintings entered that valley during the Lichhavi period. Lichhavi inscription informs us that the traders, monks, and Brahmans as well as artist from neighboring areas, visited Kathmandu valley from the mid 5th century AD. The visitors may have brought religious icons and paintings with them, which served as models for local artists.

The Chinese envoy, Wang Hsuan Tse, who came to Nepal in 17th century AD; and described quiet eloquently the houses in the valley, which at the early time were embellished with sculpture and paintings. Although there are no surviving examples of paintings fro the Lichhavi period, it can be surmised that the mural or wall painting noticed by Chinese envoy were just as sophisticated as the surviving pieces of culture from this period.

The earliest examples of Nepalese paintings are in the form of manuscript illustration of palm leaves. Nepalese manuscript goes back to the 9th century; however, not all manuscripts were illustrated. The earliest known example of the illustrated manuscript is the Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita, dated AD 1015. These manuscripts invariably consist of narrow folios of palm leaves about 30 cm long, depending on the text, but not wider than 5 cm. The manuscript are perforated into two places, lovely hold together in with strings and protected by wooden covers on both sides. These wooden covers, a large number of which have survived are more lavishly painted than the manuscript themselves. In palm leaf manuscript the script left spaces for the artists to later paint in the figure of divinities.

After the introduction of paper, palm leaf became less popular; however it continued to be use until the eighteen century. Early paper manuscripts imitated the oblong shape but were wider than the palm leaves.

Influence of Religion on Painting:

All surviving illustrated manuscript, whether Buddhist or Hindu, are illustrated with hieratic images of gods and goddesses. A large number of manuscripts are devoted to principal events from the life of Buddha or hieratic representation of Vajrayana deities, which bear little relation to the text. During the early medieval period, Prajnaparamita, the personification of wisdom, became one of the most popular deities in Nepal. Manuscripts consecrated to this deity were repeatedly copied. Beside these Buddhist manuscripts, illuminated manuscript of Hindu divinities such as Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Kartikeya and Ganesh were also frequently represented.

Manuscripts continued to be painted and copied for centuries, for a act of donating a manuscript to a monk, priest, monastery or temple was considered by both Hindus and Buddhist to be an act of great virtue. Early illustrated manuscript were executed in he same basic style, but the later examples, particularly paper manuscripts, clearly show signs of deterioration in quality.

Paubha (Thangka) Painting:

Religious painting worshipped, as icons are known as paubha in Nepal bhasa and thangka in Tibetan. The origin of paubha or thangka paintings may be attributed to Nepalese artists as early as the 9th or 10th century.

Realizing the great demand of religious icon in Tibet, these artists, along with the monks and traders, took with them from Nepal not only metal sculptures but also a number of Buddhist manuscripts. To better fulfill the ever-increasing demand, Nepalese artists initiated new types of religious painting on cloth that could be easily rolled up and carried along with them. This type of painting became very popular both in Nepal and Tibet and has remained popular to this day. One of the earliest specimens of Nepalese paubha painting dates from 13th or 14th century and shows Amitabha surrounded by Bodhisatttvas. Another Nepali paubha with three dates in the inscription (the latest one corresponding to AD 1369), is one of the earliest known paubha with inscription. The “Mandala of Vishnu”, dated AD 1420, is another fine example of the painting of this period. Early Nepalese paubha are simple in design and composition. The main deity, a large figure, occupies the central position while surrounded by small figures.

Influence of Tantrism in Painting:

From the 15th century onwards, brighter color gradually began to appear in the Nepalese painting. Because of the growing importance of the tantric cult, various aspects of Shiva and Shakti were painted in conventional poses. Mahakal, Mnjushree, Lokeshwara and other deities were equally popular and were also frequently represented in Nepalese painting or in later dates. The embrace of male and female is another common motif of the Tantric Buddhist art of this period.

Sculpture:

An art form that traces Nepalese culture from its early beginnings right up to modern times is sculpture. S previously mentioned, many carved artifacts have been found in terai region of the country, providing an insight into the religion of the country of early times. As with painting, nearly all Nepalese sculptures are of religious character. It seems that the artist themselves were greatly imbedded with a feeling of religious devotion.

The Golden Age of Nepalese Sculpture:

Nepalese sculpture reached its zenith in the Lichhavi period (AD 330 – 879). Stone, copper and Bronze images from this period show round faces with slanted eyes. A distinguishing feature of Lichhavi sculpture is their simplicity. The use of cloth and ornaments was quiet restrained, many Hindu deities, for example, are shown wearing only a Dhoti (skirt like lower garment). Buddhist deities were carved to show them wearing long sanghatis (a saffron colored robe that the Buddhist wear hanging from soldiers). Lichhavi period sculpture most often used basalt for their work, first chiseling and then smoothing and varnishing, perhaps with iron dust, the limbs of Lichhavi period were so beautifully executed that it is not possible to find one specimen with a chisel mark. Some of the best example of a Lichhavi art the image of ‘sleeping Vishnu’ in Budhanilkantha, located 8 km north of Kathmandu and the Vishnu Vikranta or dwarf incarnation found near Lazimpat in Kathmandu.

Woodcarving:

Beside stone sculpture another art form worth mentioning is woodcarving. No visitors to the Kathmandu valley can fail to be impressed by the numerous extremely beautiful windows, doors, temple roof-struts and other intricately carved artifacts. As wood are vulnerable to ravages of time, well-preserved specimen dates back only to the 14th century. Woodcarving has been the intricate part of the Nepalese architecture, some of the example being the old royal palaces of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur and a number of different Viharas (monasteries) around the valley.

Architecture:

Nepalese religious architecture is another art medium that is an important part of the country’s cultural heritage. There are three broad styles – the pagoda, the stupa style and the shikhara style.

The Pagoda Style:

The style refers to multi-roofed structure with wide eaves supported by carved wooden struts. Windows, either latticed or grilled, are usually projecting, while the roofs generally topped of by triangular spires enclosing an inverted bell of stucco or burnished gold. The pagoda style shows the architecture genius of Nepal.

A young architect, sculptor-painter named Balbahu (or Arniko as the Chinese call him), led a delegation of 80 Nepalese artists to Tibet during the late 13th century at the invitation of the Chinese Emperor Kublai Khan. The pagoda style was soon adopted in china and from there, spread to other Asian countries.

The best example of the pagoda style in Kathmandu valley is Kastamandap, a wooden pagoda built in the Malla period and from which the name of the capital city has said to be derived. The nine- strorey Basantpur Palace built by King Prithivi Narayan Shah is another outstanding pagoda specimen. The Pashupati, Taleju and Changunarayan temple are also notable example.

The Stupa Style:

The swayambhu and Boudhanath stupa are Nepal’s first examples of the stupa or the chaitya style. This style is purely Buddhist in concept and execution the outstanding feature of stupa is a hemispherical mound topped by a squarebase supporting a series of the thirteen circular rings. Narrowing towards the top, the rings are crowned by a parasol. The four side of a square base or the harmika, as it is called, are often painted with pairs of mystic ‘all-seeing eyes’. The stupa, in Patan is said to have been built by Ashoka, is considered to be the most ancient stupa of Nepal.

The Shikhara Style:

The shikhara style forms yet another architectural design found in Nepal. The super structure is a tall curvilinear or pyramidal tower whose surface is broken up vertically into five to nine sections. The final section consists of a bell-shaped part at the top. The Krishna Temple in Patan, consecrated by King Siddhi Narsing Malla, is the finest specimen of the relatively less popular shikhara style.


 


History:

Nepal holds a rich history of strength, valor and nobility. From the Kiratis, Lichhavis, Mallas to the present Shahs, each dynasty has contributed to Nepal’s culture, tradition and artwork. After the reunion of Nepal in 1769 by King Prithvi Narayan Shah, Nepal was being controlled by a powerful clan, Ranas from 1846 till 1951. After which dawned democracy; or democratic revolt of 1990 has restored the multi party democracy with constitutional monarchy.
 


Climate:

Because of its varying topography Nepal encounter climatic extremes depending upon the altitude of the place. However, in general Nepal has four climatic seasons:

 Spring (March–May) – mornings and evenings are cool while days are warm
 Summer (June–August) – hot with occasional evening thunderstorms
 Autumn (September–November) – dry and mild
 Winter (December–February) – mornings and evenings are very cold
 


Entry to Nepal:

BY AIR:
To fly directly to Nepal, Tribhuvan International Airport (TIA) in Kathmandu is the only international airport in Nepal. The TIA has direct air links with Hong Kong, Lhasa, Dhaka, Doha, Abudhabi, Banglore, Shanghai, Dubai, Bangkok, Karachi, Amsterdam, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Varanasi & Paro. Apart from Nepal Airlines, Thai Airways, Qatar Airways, Gulf Air, Pakistan International Airlines, Indian Airlines, Druk Air, Air China, Biman Bangladesh carry most of the travelers to Kathmandu.

BY LAND:
You can also travel overland to Nepal from India or Tibet. Our private coaches, buses, vans and cars can pick you up from any of the entry points. The entry points at Nepal-India Border are Kakarbhitta, Birgunj, Belhiya (Bhairahawa), Nepalgunj, Dhangadi, Sunauli and Mahendranagar.

The entry point at Nepal-China Border is Kodari.
 


Immigration Rules:

PASSPORT AND VISAS:
Except for Indians, all tourists must carry valid visas. Passports have to be carried by all visitors. A visa can be obtained at any Royal Nepalese Embassy or Consulate Offices (for 60 days). The visas can be extended at the Department of Immigration, Maitighar, Kathmandu (Tel: 4223590, 4223681) or on arrival at TIA and border entry point.

CUSTOMS FORMALITIES:
All baggage must be cleared through the customs at the point of entry. Import and export of antiques, precious stones, gold, silver, horns, wild animal skins and narcotics are strictly prohibited.

Sublinks
- Geography
- Flora and Fauna
- The People
- Religion and Culture
- Art and Culture
- Paintings
- History
- Climate
- Entry to Nepal
- Immigration Rules
 
 
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